Greater white-fronted goose: elgasi (tundra). May occur in the Northeast. Evidence not completely compelling yet.
Canada goose: parvipes (lesser Canada). May occur, but variability in resident and migrant Canadas make ID problematic.
Cackling goose: taverneri (Taverner’s). Has been claimed on at least two occasions from Massachusetts and possibly seen once (but not reported to VBRC) in southern VT.
Black brant: nigricans. Has been recorded in MA.
Green-winged teal: crecca (common aka Eurasian teal). 1-2 records from VT. Probably under-recorded.
Red-tailed Hawk—western and/or dark-morphs are a possibility having been seen in western Mass and New York
Willet: western (inornata), eastern (semipalmata). Most willets occurring in VT likely to be westerns, but not known for sure.
Short-billed dowitcher: hendersoni. About 10% of autumn coastal birds are this race. Likely to occur in VT.
Whimbrel: birds of European race (phaeopus) should be looked for and reported. May have been recorded in MA.
Iceland gull: glaucoides race. Most, if not all, L. glaucoides reported in VT are called “Iceland”, but are more likely to be Kumliens gulls. Icelands (glaucoides) may rarely occur but this needs verification.
Lesser black-backed gull: any race other than graellsii. Possible that other European races occur, most likely intermedius.
Mew/Common/Kamchatka gull. brachyrhynchus, canus, and kamtschatschensis, respectively. Most in northeast probably common, but mew gull is possible (recorded in MA), as is Kamchatka (recorded in northeast).
Northern flicker: red-shafted. Do red-shafteds occur in VT? Intergrades have been recorded at banding stations in MA.
Horned lark: any race other than praticola (Hoyti and alpestris most likely). Both Hoyti and alpestris recorded in NH. Probably under-recorded.
Northern wheatear: any claims of Greenland race (leucorhoa). Most northern wheaters seen in VT are most likely to be of this race. Unfortunately, few are identified to subspecies.
Yellow-rumped warbler: any claims of Audubon’s. Recorded in other New England states, usually in midwinter at feeding stations.
Savannah sparrow: Ipswich race. Mainly coastal, but has been recorded inland in MA. Possibly under-recorded?
Fox sparrow: any race other than iliaca. One of the dark races may have been seen in NH, but record may be a melanistic iliaca.
White-crowned sparrow: gambelii race
Nelson’s sparrow: any claims of subvirgatus need documentation and review.
Dark-eyed junco: any race other than slate-colored
Common redpoll: rostrata (greater redpoll). Under recorded?
Hoary redpoll: hornemanni may have already been photographed in the state and should be watched for closely.